See related editorial at, To suppress the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many countries have adopted social-isolation measures.1,2 These efforts have been largely successful but have had major economic implications. Table 1 and Table 2 detail human resource needs, laboratory capacity and costs of testing all members of at-risk populations on a single occasion. At 592,800 square kilometres (228,900 sq mi), Madagascar is the world's 47th largest country, the 2nd largest island country and the fourth-largest island. Active testing strategies can identify a high proportion of people with SARS-CoV-2 infection and minimal or no symptoms, who are currently an important source of community transmission. We separately calculated downstream costs of repeat testing and contact tracing and testing for each strategy. All rights reserved. These included costs of materials (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE], nasopharyngeal swabs, reagents), personnel and transportation. We defined the status quo based on the testing performed between July 8 and 17, 2020, which includes testing of symptomatic people and limited testing of asymptomatic people (e.g., some individuals with exposure or at high risk of exposure). 1. The estimated national laboratory capacity (as of July 17, 2020) is denoted with the dashed line. Emerg Infect Dis . Conversely, heat extraction and saline transport media did not reduce resource needs as substantially. Competing interests: Alton Russell has provided consulting services to Terumo BCT, a medical device company, unrelated to and outside the submitted work; Terumo BCT does not manufacture diagnostic tests. Are we ready? We evaluated group sizes of 10 to 1000 with daily risks of infection of 1 per 100 000 to 1 per 100 (assuming a communicability period of 10 days;44 these daily risks approximate population prevalence estimates of 0.01% to 10%, respectively). The population of the U.S. on April 1, 2000 was 281,421,906 [PDF 2M]. We examined changes in costs and human resource needs if testing uptake (consent) was 90%, 80% or 60%. 10,848 were here. Details may not equal totals due to rounding. Elles indiquent, pour chaque commune, par rue et par foyer, les nom et prénom des habitants, leur profession, leur place dans le ménage (chef de famille, épouse, fille, fils, domestique,...) et, selon les années, l'âge ou l'année et le lieu de naissance, la nationalité et même, pour l'année 1851, les infirmités et la religion. Lien vers le site des archives départementales du Puy-de-Dôme (département 63) Informations numérisées disponibles sur le site : - Etat civil jusqu'en 1912 - Registres matricules militaires de 1859 à 1921 - Recensement de population jusqu'en 1911 - Cadastre napoléonien - Minutes notariales - Bibliothèque (Monographies et périodiques) Costs, testing capacity and human resource needs for conducting SARS-CoV-2 surveillance testing across Canada over 14-day intervals. Performing serologic sampling and testing alongside RT-PCR cost an additional $31 per person, based on an assumed manufacturers’ cost of $10 per test (Appendix 1, Table e11). 98-316-X2016001. We suggest that actively testing those at increased risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 — and isolating individuals found to be infected — could be equally effective to arrest community transmission and is associated with far less social and economic cost. These resource and population size estimates are useful for other jurisdictions seeking to implement active testing strategies for SARS-CoV-2. We used a strict definition for essential workers. An active strategy, in which all members of selected groups at increased risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 are tested, would act to identify people with infection but minimal or no symptoms. For strategies involving at-risk populations, we estimated costs of 2 repeat tests for each person testing positive, and the cost of tracing and providing the initial test to 16 contacts for each person testing positive. Les listes nominatives recensent, pour chaque commune, les habitants du bourg puis ceux des hameaux selon un ordre topographique : … Olivia Oxlade reports being Associate Scientific Director (Management) for the COVID-19 Immunity Task Force. Source complémentaire (consultable depuis l'état général des fonds): Service offert par le Conseil départemental du Puy-de-Dôme. All editorial matter in CMAJ represents the opinions of the authors and not necessarily those of the Canadian Medical Association or its subsidiaries. The earliest of these were the legendary Sao, known from artifacts and oral histories.The Sao fell to the Kanem Empire, the first and longest-lasting of the empires that developed in Chad's Sahelian strip by the end of the 1st millennium AD. ISSN 1488-2329 (e) 0820-3946 (p). Les recensements ont lieu tous les 5 ans à l'exception des périodes de guerre (recensement effectué en 1872 au lieu de 1871, et absence de recensement en 1916). The Census of Agriculture is a complete count of U.S. farms and ranches and the people who operate them. Implementing interventions to reduce costs and improve efficiency were predicted to substantially affect resources required for universal testing (Table 1, Table 2). The authors thank Dr. Andrea Benedetti for statistical advice on surveillance testing, Ms. Danielle Sampath for administrative and technical support, Dr. Marcel Behr and Dr. Cedric Yansouni for advice on laboratory aspects, Dr. Kevin Schwartzman and Dr. Raymond Tellier for a critical review of an earlier version of this work, and Dr. Noémie Savard and all other Quebec health officials who provided important contextual information informing the development and resource needs for the strategies analyzed. We estimated costs, human resources and laboratory capacity required to perform testing for each strategy, assuming 100% of each target population was tested. The fees were received and the work performed after initial submission of the present manuscript. Conducted individually, all provinces had laboratory capacity to conduct surveillance testing in 1 of these at-risk populations in parallel with systematic tracing and testing of contacts, but only 3 provinces had capacity to conduct surveillance testing simultaneously in all populations (Appendix 1, Table e9). As workplaces and schools reopen after the first wave of COVID-19 in Canada, testing priorities and strategies are needed to prevent surges in community transmission of SARS-CoV-2. For contacts, other studies have estimated impacts.75–77 It is possible some people in our strategies are already being tested (e.g., some contacts) and other groups that may require testing (e.g., travellers, visitors to long-term care) were not considered. Pour en savoir plus, consultez les informations pratiques Toute l'équipe des Archives départementales du Puy-de-Dôme vous souhaite de belles fêtes de fin d'année. RESULTS: During July 8–17, 2020, across all provinces in Canada, an average of 41 751 RT-PCR tests were performed daily; we estimated this required 5122 personnel and cost $2.4 million per day ($67.8 million per month). Over the period of July 8–17, 2020, 417 508 tests for SARS-CoV-2 were performed and 3501 (0.84%) were positive27 (Appendix 1, Table e2). The most notable is gathering saliva samples. The grant also supports the salaries of Aashna Uppal and Mercedes Yanes-Lane. We did not consider costs associated with capacity building and existing infrastructure; nor did we include health system costs beyond testing, such as inpatient or outpatient medical costs, as most people detected would be unlikely to seek care or be detected otherwise. Des récapitulatifs existent le plus souvent à la fin de chaque liste et permettent de suivre l'ordre de recensement. In 1-way sensitivity analysis, cost of systematically tracing and testing contacts was most sensitive to RT-PCR reagent cost, and personnel needs were most sensitive to activities related to tracing and scheduling contacts. 1,598 Followers, 356 Following, 316 Posts - See Instagram photos and videos from Auto Moto Officiel (@automotoofficiel) Niger is a developing country, which consistently ranks near the bottom in the United Nations' Human Development Index (HDI); it was ranked 187th of 188 countries for 2015 and 189th out of 189 countries in the 2018 and 2019 reports. Costs were estimated to be about 5% those of universal testing of at-risk groups. As these 2 strategies represent different organizational models for sampling (contacts are tested at clinic-based facilities, while workers will be tested at their worksites), the results are shown with tornado diagrams. If daily SARS-CoV-2 infection risk is 1 per 100 000 (corresponding to a population prevalence of about 0.01%), then population groups of 100 or fewer (e.g., smaller workforces or classes in primary or secondary schools) would be more than 90% likely to remain infection free for more than 3 months, and testing could be repeated quarterly. Funding: This study is directly funded by an operating grant (ECRF-R1-30) from the McGill Interdisciplinary Initiative in Infection and Immunity (MI4), a philanthropic scientific-granting organization with peer-reviewed competition; Dick Menzies was the Principal Investigator and Jonathon Campbell the co-Principal Investigator. Photos. Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (Campbell, Oxlade, Fregonese, Menzies, Oh, Bastos, Sulis); Faculty of Medicine (Campbell, Menzies, Winters, Sulis, Uppal, Yanes-Lane, Lan), McGill University; McGill International TB Centre (Campbell, Oxlade, Fregonese, Menzies, Bastos, Sulis, Law); Department of Economics (Laszlo) and School of Population and Global Health (Evans), McGill University, Montréal, Que. Analyses considering increased prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in proportional increases to the number of contacts traced and tested in all strategies, but minimally affected cost and human resource needs for strategies in at-risk populations (Appendix 1, Table e12). Data from Statistics Canada provided the number of acute care hospitals and long-term care facilities,28,29 the number of employees for each in June 2020,4,30 and the number of residents of long-term care facilities.31,32 Without an estimate of the number of community health care workers in Canada,33 we used American data34–36 and assumed the number employed in Canada was proportional to population. Daily human resource and laboratory capacity needs for active testing strategies for SARS-CoV-2 across Canada, Costs for conducting active testing strategies for SARS-CoV-2 across Canada. We calculated estimates for each province individually and summed them. Adresses et horaires des Archives départementales et associations généalogiques du Puy-de-Dôme Noms de famille les plus populaires dans le Puy-de-Dôme Contributors: Dick Menzies, Jonathon Campbell, Alton Russell, Timothy Evans and Olivia Oxlade contributed to the conception and design of the work. This would detect individuals who might otherwise contribute to transmission and provide important epidemiologic information on how SARS-CoV-2 is affecting these populations.

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